September 29, 2023
Uncovering the Thriving Fintech Landscape in Southeast Asia
Introduction In recent years, Southeast Asia (SEA) has unmistakably stood out as a breeding ground for fintech marvels. Within the confines of […]
In recent years, Southeast Asia (SEA) has unmistakably stood out as a breeding ground for fintech marvels. Within the confines of this article, we will embark on a journey to uncover the driving forces behind this fintech upswing, assessing the profound influence of the COVID-19 pandemic, examining the dynamic shifts in the market, and delving into both the tantalizing opportunities and the formidable challenges that await on this exciting fintech frontier.
The Phenomenal Rise of Southeast Asia's Fintech Industry
Several factors have fueled the exponential growth of fintech in SEA:
Rising Middle Class: SEA has seen a substantial increase in its middle-class population, especially in countries like Indonesia. Many of these individuals remain underbanked or unbanked, presenting a vast untapped market for fintech companies. Fintech solutions like digital payments and lending can significantly improve their financial well-being.
Digital Economy and Super-Platforms: The digital economy has become deeply entrenched in SEA, with super-platforms spanning eCommerce, ride-hailing, and food delivery. These platforms rely on fintech innovations for smooth payment processing and financial transactions, making fintech integral to the region's digital ecosystem.
Supportive Regulatory Frameworks: SEA nations have embraced progressive regulatory frameworks that encourage digital innovations in fintech. Collaborations for payments, standardized QR systems, and streamlined licensing have created a favorable environment for fintech growth.
Pre and Post-Pandemic Shifts
The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated fintech adoption across SEA, driven by a shift from offline to online transactions. eCommerce penetration, for example, surged in Indonesia. The rise of retail traders and investors also contributed to the growth of wealth tech and invest tech applications.
Market Demand and Untapped Opportunities
The demand for fintech services in SEA outpaces supply. Consumer lending alone has a demand of approximately $300 billion, while the supply is around $150 billion. As the middle class continues to expand, this gap will widen, offering fintech companies ample opportunities to innovate. Tier two and tier three cities remain untapped, providing fertile ground for fintech expansion through agent networks and digital solutions.
Emerging Lucrative Fintech Markets
Vietnam stands out as a promising fintech market with rapid growth in digital payments and eCommerce. Similar to trends observed in China and Indonesia, Vietnam's convergence of payment infrastructure and eCommerce boosts its fintech potential.
Innovations in Decentralized Finance and Robotic Process Automation
Innovations like Decentralized Finance (DeFi) and Robotic Process Automation (RPA) are gaining traction, offering new financial services and operational efficiencies. DeFi platforms provide decentralized lending and borrowing options, while RPA streamlines backend operations.
Mobile Payment Market Trends
Mobile payments have become a cornerstone of fintech in SEA, especially in countries with low credit card adoption rates. Each SEA nation has its preferred e-wallet, and QR-based payments are the norm due to their cost-effectiveness and convenience. Local e-wallet dominance poses challenges to international players like Stripe and PayPal.
Driving Financial Inclusion
Fintech plays a vital role in driving financial inclusion across SEA. Many people in the region remain underbanked or unbanked, and fintech firms are introducing innovative solutions to address their needs. Mobile money services, peer-to-peer lending, and digital wallets are making financial services accessible to those previously excluded.
Challenges and Regulatory Policies
Despite promising growth, the fintech industry in SEA faces challenges, including cybersecurity threats, competition, and talent acquisition. Regulatory bodies are continuously refining policies to ensure consumer protection and market stability. Collaborative efforts between governments and the private sector are crucial to foster a conducive environment for fintech innovation.
The Future of SEA's Fintech Industry
The future of fintech in SEA appears promising. Market trends point to continued growth, with regionalization and the inclusion of tier two and tier three cities opening new avenues. Fintech companies are exploring synergies within the financial ecosystem, positioning themselves to become the financial institutions of tomorrow, tailored to SEA's unique needs.
In conclusion, Southeast Asia's fintech industry is on an exhilarating journey, driven by factors like a growing middle class, the expansion of the digital economy, regulatory support, and lessons learned from the pandemic. The industry's path in the coming years promises excitement and transformation.
Addressing Financial Inclusion: Disrupting the Unbanked Population in Southeast Asia
Despite a GDP of close to $US3 trillion and a population heading towards 600 million, Southeast Asia often remains one of the least understood regions. A mix of developed and emerging economies, urbanization, and digitization have been fueling economic growth at a level consistently exceeding historical global averages. Income growth has significantly increased since the turn of the millennium. Yet, half the population remains unbanked with no access to financial products, and a further fifth are underbanked, lacking access to anything other than a bank account.
Eager to trial their services is a young, digitally native population that spends around 8 hours a day online. Smartphone penetration is on the verge of crossing 70 percent of the population, and each year tens of millions of people become first-time internet users.
The COVID-19 pandemic acted as a further catalyst when technology emerged as a critical means of reaching a population with health advice and allowing financial and commerce transactions to continue against a backdrop of lockdowns and mobility constraints. This saw an additional 60 million people in the region become online consumers throughout its duration.
However, unlike in markets where banking access is more universal, the opportunity for fintech companies is not purely focused on converting consumers to digital alternatives but is often about addressing the challenge of providing a broader suite of financial services products. Those such as lending and wealth management services, which have traditionally been out of reach for consumers who lack credit histories required to obtain them.
So, while providers in the region started with a focus on providing e-wallets to facilitate online and offline payments, they have broadened their functionality and, in some cases, are now replacing bank accounts and offer access to a broader suite of financial products, including savings and investment products, lending, and insurance.
An example of one such product is Singapore-based Grab, which allows consumers to invest as little as $SG1 ($A1) at a time in fixed-income funds through its app and offers users the convenience of making cash deposits into their digital accounts while in its rideshare cars. This has helped some increase user numbers over time. As has their metamorphosis into 'superapps' and a broader digital ecosystem of services that users would typically pay cash for - such as e-commerce, ride-hailing, food delivery, and mobile top-ups.
The convenience and offering of these 'superapps' have led to their growing popularity amongst the population and a proliferation of providers, fast-tracking digital payments to becoming the norm for many of Southeast Asia's consumers. It's also helped propel the region to becoming one of the fastest-growing fintech markets in the world.
Should they successfully convert a population with high smartphone penetration rates but traditionally dependent on cash to one that conducts and manages its spending online, they stand to capitalize on a digital economy that could be worth at least $US350 billion by 2025, and a financial services opportunity of $US38 billion.
The engine of the Southeast Asia economy is the 70 million micro, small, and medium enterprises. Also, underbanked and, in the majority, accepting only cash payments and paying their employees and suppliers in cash, they underlie the reason 60 percent of the region's Gross Transaction Value is cash-based.
Such dominance of physical currency is both the largest competitor to digital payment platforms and offers its greatest potential. These businesses face an online future and a requirement to develop the capabilities to accommodate the browsing and purchasing habits of young and digitally savvy consumers.
Digital financial providers are playing a key role in helping them make the transition. In addition to facilitating online payment, players like GoTo and Grab are increasingly crucial for small merchants, from simple initiatives such as introducing QR codes to accept digital infrastructure with minimal payments to providing access to new customers hundreds of miles away.
Accordingly, estimates are that the volume of funds flowing through digital wallets in Southeast Asia will more than treble from its current $US39 billion to $US138 billion in 2025, as they increasingly encroach on the territory of cash transactions.
And as merchants digitize, it creates opportunities for the providers to facilitate financial services to these customers who have traditionally struggled to obtain financing or insurance.
Nimble fintech companies are particularly well-placed to innovate – especially in the lending space. Traditional banks are focused on providing credit through loans and credit cards, but only to those with sufficient credit history. Fintech companies are able to develop their own credit scoring techniques and offer innovative products, such as 'buy now, pay later' style offerings.
Bringing such financial inclusion to a new generation is helping close the equality gap between those who have instant access to the broader digital economy and the rapidly expanding world of e-commerce.
Access to savings, micro-loans, and insurance products can also help people climb out of poverty by providing access to funding for education and training and stop them falling back into it by cushioning them when they experience income fluctuations or suffer from temporary or prolonged unemployment.
For businesses, digital payments themselves can help them manage cash flows, prove credit worthiness, and attract new customers, while acting as a gateway to credit products that can fund growth and insurance that helps them mitigate risk.
Digital financial inclusion is associated with higher GDP growth at the national level. Financial inclusion creates jobs, opens up new commercial opportunities, increases the standard of living, and can significantly reduce poverty rates and income inequality in developing countries and is associated with higher GDP growth.
Indeed, the World Bank cites access to mobile and digitally enabled payments as a necessary component if a country's population is to have financial inclusion, which itself the IMF describes as the bridge between economic opportunity and outcomes.
Southeast Asia is a vast region with a large, urbanizing, digitally savvy, yet underbanked population. Cash has been – and in many ways, remains – a dominant feature of everyday life, but digital finance providers are steadily bringing the under and unbanked in from the financial cold.
In conclusion, Southeast Asia's fintech industry is not just about technological advancement; it's a catalyst for financial inclusion, economic growth, and societal transformation. With innovation as its driving force, this region is well on its way to becoming a global fintech powerhouse, leaving an indelible mark on the financial landscape.